Techno-economic Feasibility Analysis of Photovoltaic Charging Station for Electric Boats in Sabangko Island

  • B. D. Indradjaja Swiss German University
  • B. Ramadhani GIZ –Energy Program
  • Phil. M. Günther University of Oldenburg
  • P. Gunawan Swiss German University
Keywords: PV, charging station, electric boat, battery, energy modelling


Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. There are thousands of islands that are located far away from the grid that needs access to electricity. As a result, PV mini-grids have been installed in many remote islands. However, most of these PV mini-grids are under-utilized producing large amounts of unused excess energy. Since most of the inhabitants of these remote islands depend on fishing for their livelihoods, an idea was proposed to use excess energy from a PV mini-grid to power electric boats. This paper presents a techno-economic feasibility analysis of a PV charging station for electric boats using Sabangko Island in Makassar as an exemplary location. A detailed analysis of the existing system shows that there is enough excess energy to charge several boat batteries. The economic analysis shows that the LCOE of the project is quite low relative to other off-grid projects and the price of renting and charging a battery is still affordable.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

B. D. Indradjaja, Swiss German University
Swiss German University, Jl. Jalur Sutera Bar. No. Kav 15, 15143 Banten
B. Ramadhani, GIZ –Energy Program
GIZ – Energy Program, Jl. HOS Cokroaminoto No. 91, 10310 Jakarta
Phil. M. Günther, University of Oldenburg
University of Oldenburg, Carl - von - Ossietzky - Str. 9 - 11, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
P. Gunawan, Swiss German University
Swiss German University, Jl. Jalur Sutera Bar. No. Kav 15, 15143 Banten


Ariwibowo, T., Gunawan, P., Ramadhani, B., & Günther, M. (2019). Techno-Economic Feasibility Analysis of using Electric Outboard Motor for Artisanal Fisher in Indonesia.

Asian Development Bank. (2016). Indonesia: Energy Sector Assessment, Strategy, and Road Map.

Barro, R. J. (1997). Macroeconomics. Retrieved from

Belmili, H., Haddadi, M., Bacha, S., Almi, M. F., & Bendib, B. (2014). Sizing stand-alone photovoltaic–wind hybrid system: Techno-economic analysis and optimization. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30, 821–832.

Bhandari, B., Poudel, S. R., Lee, K.-T., & Ahn, S.-H. (2014). Mathematical modeling of hybrid renewable energy system: A review on small hydro-solar-wind power generation. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, 1(2), 157–173.

Bhattacharyya, S. C. (2011). Review of Alternative Methodologies for Analysing Off-Grid Electricity Supply. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Darling, S. B., You, F., Veselka, T., & Velosa, A. (2011). Assumptions and the levelized cost of energy for photovoltaics. Energy and Environmental Science, 4(9), 3133–3139.

DRP-3200 / DPU-3200 3200W Power Supplies - Mean Well | Mouser Indonesia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2019, from

Energizing Development. (2018). RE-MAP Indonesia. Retrieved June 17, 2019, from

Hamad, A. A., & Alsaad, M. A. (2010). A software application for energy flow simulation of a grid connected photovoltaic system. Energy Conversion and Management, 51(8), 1684–1689.

Indonesia Investments. (2016). One Fuel Price Policy Indonesia, Higher Operational Costs Pertamina | Indonesia Investments. Retrieved from

Müller, R., Pfeifroth, U., Träger-Chatterjee, C., Trentmann, J., Cremer, R., Müller, R., … Cremer, R. (2015). Digging the METEOSAT Treasure—3 Decades of Solar Surface Radiation. Remote Sensing, 7(6), 8067–8101.

Rienecker, M. M., Suarez, M. J., Gelaro, R., Todling, R., Bacmeister, J., Liu, E., … Woollen, J. (2011). MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications. Journal of Climate, 24(14), 3624–3648.

Ross, G., R., & Jr. (1976). Interface design considerations for terrestrial solar cell modules. Retrieved from

Schwerdtner Máñez, K., & Ferse, S. C. A. (2010). The History of Makassan Trepang Fishing and Trade. PLoS ONE, 5(6), e11346.

How to Cite
Indradjaja, B. D., Ramadhani, B., Günther, P. M., & Gunawan, P. (2020). Techno-economic Feasibility Analysis of Photovoltaic Charging Station for Electric Boats in Sabangko Island. Indonesian Journal of Energy, 3(1), 34-50.