Decarbonizing Energy in Bali With Solar Photovoltaic: GIS-Based Evaluation on Grid-Connected System
In the past century, fossil fuels have dominated energy supply in Indonesia. However, concerns over emissions are likely to change the future energy supply. As people become more conscious of environmental issues, alternatives for energy are sought to reduce the environmental impacts. These include renewable energy (RE) sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, most RE sources like solar PV are not available continuously since they depend on weather conditions, in addition to geographical location. Bali has a stable and long sunny day with 12 hours of daylight throughout the year and an average insolation of 5.3 kWh/m2 per day. This study looks at the potential for on-grid solar PV to decarbonize energy in Bali. A site selection methodology using GIS is applied to measure solar PV potential. Firstly, the study investigates the boundaries related to environmental acceptability and economic objectives for land use in Bali. Secondly, the potential of solar energy is estimated by defining the suitable areas, given the technical assumptions of solar PV. Finally, the study extends the analysis to calculate the reduction in emissions when the calculated potential is installed. Some technical factors, such as tilting solar, and intermittency throughout the day, are outside the scope of this study. Based on this model, Bali has an annual electricity potential for 32-53 TWh from solar PV using amorphous thin-film silicon as the cheapest option. This potential amount to three times the electricity supply for the island in 2024 which is estimated at 10 TWh. Bali has an excessive potential to support its own electricity demand with renewables, however, some limitations exist with some trade-offs to realize the idea. These results aim to build a developmental vision of solar PV systems in Bali based on available land and the region’s irradiation.