Complexity of Barriers to Biogas Digester Dissemination in Indonesia

  • Ibnu Budiman Wageningen University
Keywords: bioenergy, biogas, governance, program, fragmentation


In the global south, the use of firewood and LPG as dominant energy sources for cooking contributes to socio-ecological issues. Alternatively, biogas is considered a cleaner energy source generated from organic waste. However, in Indonesia, until 2018, only less than 2 percent of households utilized biogas for cooking fuel. This research aims to explore the landscape of biogas governance in Indonesia, its fragmentation and its relation with biodigester dissemination. This study found that there is fragmentation within small-medium scale national biogas programs in Indonesia. Seven national government biogas programs have similar governance arrangements and characteristics; scattered in different departments within the ministry, using the grant approach with two main vendors, often overlapping with local government programs and not providing proper monitoring and evaluation mechanism, as well as proper training for users. Meanwhile, the biogas program by a non-government organization utilizes a semi-commercial approach; collaborating with multiple stakeholders (governments, local construction partner organizations, cooperatives and private sectors-companies and banks); and has standardized training and after-sale services. Within those biogas programs, there are multiple barriers along the supply chain process of biodigester dissemination. These barriers relate to the governance aspect of biogas programs. Fragmented governance affected the capability of each program to tackle barriers in biogas digester dissemination.   


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullah, K. (2002). Biomass energy potentials and utilization in Indonesia. Lab. Energy Agric. Electrification Dep. Agric. Eng. IPB Indones. Renew. Energy Soc. IRES Bogor.

Andadari, R. K., Mulder, P., & Rietveld, P. (2014). Energy poverty reduction by fuel switching. Impact evaluation of the LPG conversion program in Indonesia. Energy Policy, 66, 436–449.

Austin, K.G., et al. (2018). A review of land-based greenhouse gas flux estimates in Indonesia. Environ. Res. Lett., 13(5), 55003.

Bedi, A., Sparrow, R., & Tasciotti, L. (2017). The impact of a household biogas programme on energy use and expenditure in East Java. Energy Econ., 68, 66–76.

Biermann, F., Pattberg, P., Van Asselt, H., & Zelli, P. (2009). The fragmentation of global governance architectures: A framework for analysis. Global Environment Politics, 9(4), 14-40.

Budiman, I., Muthahhari, R., Kaynak, C., Reichwein, F., & Zhang, W. (2018). Multiple challenges and opportunities for biogas dissemination in Indonesia,” Indones. J. Energy, 1(2), 46–60.

Budiman, I., & Smits, M. (2020). How do configuration shifts in fragmented energy governance affect policy output? A case study of changing biogas regimes in Indonesia,” Sustainability, 12(4). https://doi.org10.3390/su12041358

Budiman, I. (2018). Enabling community participation for social innovation in the energy sector. Indonesian Journal of Energy, 1(2), 21-31.

Budiman, I. (2020). The Role of Fixed-Dome and Floating Drum Biogas Digester for Energy Security in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Energy, 3(2), 83-93.

BPS. (2017). Persentase rumah tangga menurut provinsi dan bahan bakar utama untuk memasak tahun 2001-2007-2016.

Bond, T., & Templeton, M. R. (2011). History and future of domestic biogas plants in the developing world. Energy Sustain. Dev., 15(4), 347–354.

Government of Indonesia [GoI]. (2017). Rencana Umum Energi Nasional. (Lampiran II Perpres No 22 Tahun 2017).

Gross, T., et al. (2017). Potential of biogas production to reduce firewood consumption in remote high-elevation Himalayan communities in Nepal. Renew. Energy Environ. Sustain., 2, 8.

Kementerian ESDM. (2018). Realisasi program biogas. Directorate of Bioenergy.


Roubík, H., Mazancová, J., Rydval, J., & Kvasnička, R. (2020). Uncovering the dynamic complexity of the development of small–scale biogas technology through causal loops. Renew. Energy, 149, 235–243.

Smith, J., et al. (2012). Illegal Logging, Collusive Corruption and Fragmented Governments in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Smits, M. (2017). The new (fragmented) geography of carbon market mechanisms: governance challenges from Thailand and Vietnam. Global Environment Politic, 17(3), 69–90.

Thoday, K., Benjamin, P., Gan, M. & Puzzolo, E. (2018). The mega conversion program from kerosene to LPG in Indonesia: lessons learned and recommendations for future clean cooking energy expansion. Energy Sustain. Dev., 46, 71–81

Transrisk. (2017). Report on Social Discourse Analyses and Social Network Analyses.

How to Cite
Budiman, I. (2021). Complexity of Barriers to Biogas Digester Dissemination in Indonesia . Indonesian Journal of Energy, 4(1), 57-70.