Strategic Implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions for Waste-to-Energy Utilization in Indonesia

A Regulatory Review

  • Alfiyah Nur Inayah Hamzah Hasanuddin university
  • Valeria Erika Sari Paliling Student of Faculty of Law, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan km 10, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Keywords: energy security, renewable energy, waste to energy, energy policy, sustainable development goals


Municipal solid waste (MSW) stands out as a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, with Indonesia ranking among the world's largest contributors. The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) commits Indonesia to minimize MSW emissions through renewable energy development, a central aspect of addressing the climate change crisis. In response, Presidential Regulation Number 35 of 2018 was introduced to vitalize these efforts. However, despite these initiatives, the existing legal framework has not adequately addressed the issue. This research aims to address two pivotal questions: How does Indonesian law regulate the conversion of waste into energy? To what extent do current regulations encompass Waste-to-Energy power plants? Employing a normative legal analysis, this study critically examines national legal instruments related to renewable energy, utilizing a statutory approach. Our findings underscore that current regulations concerning renewable energy lack effectiveness in ensuring availability, resilience, and national energy independence in a sustainable manner. Our study contributes to the existing body of research by delving into aspects of Waste-to-Energy regulation in Indonesia, an area that has not been extensively explored in previous studies.


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How to Cite
Hamzah, A. N. I., & Paliling, V. E. S. (2024). Strategic Implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions for Waste-to-Energy Utilization in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Energy, 7(1), 58-65.